A Few Definitions

From: DeannaG 5 Apr 2017 05:23
To: ALL1 of 1
Absolutism, Moral

The view that certain actions are always wrong or obligatory, regardless of the consequences. Examples of this include the belief that it's wrong to kill an innocent person, and that one should always tell the truth. In politics, the belief that there are no limits to the power of government, kings, etc.


The belief that some things can be proven neither right nor wrong, as in a belief in God.


The belief that the environment and inanimate objects in it possess a soul or spirit.


The belief that man is at the center of the universe; man possesses a certain significance, and all things exist for the sake of man.


From the Greek; the infinite, or formless, out of which everything springs, and into which everything will return.


A serenity, peace of mind, freedom from anxiety. Epicureans saw this as the key to happiness, and the ultimate goal in life.


The view that things are as they are because they ought to be such; the good determines the unfolding of events, reality.


The unordered or unformed. In modern science, chaos systems are those in which small initial differences produce major changes down the road, thus making determination impossible.

Aethetic Distance

The act of "distancing" oneself from works of art, so that one can experience the object unclouded by their own desires, feelings, and emotions.


The belief that biological life, including human, is central to the scheme of things.

Cartesian Dualism

The belief that mind and body are two separate entities.

In Confucian thought, the principle of common humanity; goodness, humanity, benevolence.

In Buddhism, the perfect or beautific state, where all desire and passion are extinguished; the positive state of perpetual peace.

The Buddhist doctrine that everything exists; that which was, that which is, and that which will be.

Pascal’s Wager
When given a choice of believing in God or not, it is vastly better to believe and follow the teachings of God, for if there is a God, then the rewards are great in the afterlife; if there is not, one has lost nothing.

Gnothi se auton
From the Greek, "know thyself."
Found inscribed on the Delphi temple of ancient Greece.

Cogito ergo sum
In Latin, Descartes "I think therefore I am."
1. (a) A spiritual discipline aiming at union with the divine through deep meditation or trancelike contemplation.
(b) The experience of such communion as described by mystics.
2. Any belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual or intellectual apprehension, but central to being and directly accessible by intuition.
1.(a)The belief that the dead communicate with the living, usually through a medium.
(b) The practices or doctrines of those holding such a belief.
2. Any philosophy, doctrine, or religion emphasizing the spiritual rather then the material; especially, any doctrine holding that spirit is the prime or only aspect of reality.

1.(a)Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means.
(b)The investigation of causes and laws underlying reality.
(c)A particular system of philosophical inquiry or demonstration.
2.Inquiry into the nature of things based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.
3.The critique and analysis of fundamental beliefs as they come to be conceptualized and formulated.
4. The investigation of natural phenomena and its systemization in theory and experiment, as in alchemy, astrology, or astronomy: natural philosophy.
5. All the disciplines presented in university curricula of science and the liberal arts except medicine, law, and theology: Doctor of Philosophy.
6. The science comprising logic, ethics, aesthestics, metaphysics, and epistemology.
7. The general principles underlying a particular branch of study, field of activity, or approach to practical problems: the philosophy of history : monetarist philosophy.
8. The system of values by which one lives.
9. The calmness and detachment thought to befit a philosopher. [Middle English-philosophie, from Old French, from Latin-philosophia, from Greek, from philosophos, "loving wisdom."]